Academy of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy

American Physical Therapy Association (APTA)

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30.1, The running athlete:
prevention & intervention strategies
abstracts and keywords

Running Footwear:
Matching Structure and Function

Abstract:

This monograph discusses current information on running footwear. It goes into details on shoe types, including minimalist shoes, and what type of runner may best benefit from each. It also discusses the effect of shoes on performance, as well as prescription footwear. CASE ANALYSES: Three interesting cases are presented at the end of this review. One case involves a middle-aged female runner with posterior ankle pain. The second case includes a CrossFit athlete with knee pain. The final case includes an older female with a lateral ankle sprain.

Keywords:​

shoes, minimalist, comfort

References:

Click here.

The Science and Rehabilitation of Common Running Injuries

Abstract:

Rehabilitation professionals commonly encounter runners who have sustained a running-related injury. Whether or not the health professional has an individual passion for running, it is critical for these clinicians to possess a strong knowledge of running gait and the biomechanical forces that act on the body with each step. These forces combined with the unique qualities of the individual runner and training habits ultimately contribute to subsequent injury. Identifying pertinent risk factors and training load errors is essential in managing and recovering from running-related injury. Clinicians should be well versed in diagnosing and rehabilitating prevalent running-related injuries. This monograph discusses common running-related musculoskeletal injuries including etiology, signs and symptoms, clinical presentation, evidenced-based rehabilitation interventions, and expected outcomes for recovery. The role of kinetic forces and training load errors in contributing to injury is emphasized. The use of gait retraining and progressive resistance training interventions is highlighted. A practical return to run program is provided. CASE ANALYSES: Four unique case studies are presented. Each case uses the concepts presented in the monograph. The final case is presented in video format.

Keywords:​

musculoskeletal, overuse, biomechanics, gait retraining

References:

Click here.

Care Considerations for Runners of Different Levels

Abstract:

The performance level and experience of individual runners should be a key factor to consider in the management of injury. A running athlete’s level has been found to influence both injury prognosis and treatment options. Consideration for how running injury factors relate to injury onset for each runner level is essential to establish a clinical picture of why an athlete suffered from an injury. During treatment an athlete’s level may influence decisions for exercise prescription, biopsychosocial considerations, sport withdrawal, and return to sport. This monograph explores how an individual athlete’s presentation should tailor treatment considerations. CASE ANALYSES: Four case studies are included that focus on unique runners who fall into each outlined running level category. These studies are designed to challenge the reader to apply the concepts covered in this monograph to real-world scenarios.

Keywords:​

running experience, running level, return to sport, running injury risk factors

References:

Click here.

Evaluation, Treatment, and Management of Adolescent Runners

Abstract:

This monograph discusses evidence-based management of adolescent runners across the entire continuum of care from injury prevention through injury rehabilitation and return-to-running. Evaluative techniques cover diagnosis-specific strategies, sport-specific testing, and gait analysis while considering an athletes’ stage of growth and development. This monograph also discusses cutting-edge treatment techniques, including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, neuromuscular control progressions, plyometrics, and return-to-running progressions beneficial for adolescent runners. CASE ANALYSES: The monograph presents 4 case studies highlighting the clinical management of adolescent runners. The first case involves a 17-year-old male runner with a history of lower extremity overuse injuries. The second case involves a hamstring injury in a female high-level track athlete preparing for a collegiate running career. The third case involves a 12-year-old female with running asymmetries contributing to ankle pain. The fourth case is an example of how to progress a 16-year-old male athlete back to running after a concussion.

Keywords:​

athlete, gait, rehabilitation, injury, dysfunction

References:

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Injury Prevention for Runners:
Bridging the Gap Between Physical Therapy and Performance

Abstract:

Current physical therapy practice commonly has a distinct time gap between time of patient discharge and unrestricted return to full athletic performance. This gap is seen in runners and can lead to a pattern of reinjury if proper steps are not taken to ensure runners continue to develop the strength and control required as they increase the intensity and volume of their training. Developing a discharge criteria that is specific to the task or patient specific goals is essential to avoiding early discharge. As each athlete progresses, injury risk can be decreased with continued development in several performance areas including core stability, hip stability, single leg control and strength, toe and foot strength, and overall power and strength. Not every clinical scenario allows physical therapists to follow-up with patients to help them develop habits that decrease injury risk. However, many options are available that allow physical therapists to be on the forefront of guiding these practices in a community setting. CASE ANALYSES: Three cases are presented. Each case uses the concepts outlined in this monograph.

Keywords:​

discharge, follow-up, injury risk

References:

Click here.

Running Biomechanics and Energetics

Abstract:

Running is a natural activity that can become a rewarding avenue to achieve fitness and overall good health. The physical therapist is the ideal clinician to work with clientele who have such a goal. This monograph discusses the biomechanics and energetics of running and provides functional applications of these concepts. In the biomechanics section, the areas of kinematics, muscle activity, and kinetics are discussed. Ideal running form is examined as it relates to injury reduction. The energetics section focuses on running economy. The last section of the chapter highlights factors that affect running gait including aging, sex differences, experience, and fatigue. CASE ANALYSES: Three distinctly different cases are presented. The first case details a female runner who has developed anterior knee pain from improper training and poor knee mechanics. The case outlines the importance of training and movement precision. The second case presents a middle-aged male runner who has developed Achilles pain. This case highlights the importance of foot mechanics and choosing appropriate shoewear. The third case provides the framework for helping a young college runner to reach his maximum running performance. The reader will be able to use information from these three cases to aid their treatment of runners in real-life clinical scenarios.

Keywords:​

kinematics, running economy, strike pattern

References:

Click here.

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